Color pigments are generally divided into organic and inorganic pigment types.
Both pigment types have different properties.
Inorganic pigments are divided into natural and synthetic inorganic pigments.
The first group includes the earth as yellow ocher, umber or Green earth and mineral pigments such as
Azurite, Malachite, Lapis lazuli, or Cinnabar.
The second group includes inorganic pigments such as iron oxide pigments, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, ultramarine blue or titanium dioxide.
Natural inorganic pigments
Although these pigments occur naturally, modifications are often necessary for the use of artistic color systems. In most cases these pigments are processed by means of mechanical processing for so long until a fine powder is obtained.
We live in a modern world where the word 'natural' is usually associated with the highest quality. So you take a natural earth and refined it. The result of this, so unromantic it is, can also be physically unstable or contain impurities. It is therefore very impoartant to select only the best pigments.
Synthetic inorganic pigments
Not surprisingly it was for thousand of xears tried to produce improved pigments by the introduction of chemical processes. Many earth tones are therefore mixtures of iron oxide and manganese or magnesium salts, their use has led to the highest quality standards.
Between 1780 and 1900 chemists discovered gradually that zinc, chromium, cobalt, manganese, titanium and especially cadmium-based compounds are the foundation for some of the most brilliant and durable colors.
Organic pigments can also be divided into natural and synthetic organic organic pigments.
Natural organic pigments
These pigments occur in nature as "animal" or "vegetable dyes".
Some historically important pigments as the color-strong Indian yellow from the urine of cows fed with mango, were replaced by the wide range of synthetic pigments in the course of the 20th century. Although the name of Indian yellow is still used, this color has been replaced by synthetic alternatives long ago.
The group of organic pigments include color-soluble dyes (colourants) which were fixed on substrates, such as the madder extracted from the madder root. This pigment, however, was ousted in 1868 by the synthetic Alizarin (Alizarin Madder Lake).
Another example is Indigo, which is obtained from the indigo plant, which was replaced by synthetic indigo starting from 1878.
Synthetic Organic Pigments
From the Renaissance to the modern art, great historical periods of art are often linked to the availability of new pigments and new artistic insights. Advances in science have color transformed from being a rather decorative role in one of the most fundamental issues of modern art. The development of synthetic organic pigments is significantly responsible for this transformation.
A distinction is made between two types of synthetic organic pigments:
Azo pigments, which are produced from tar products produced from azo dyes, and polycyclic pigments whose major portion are copper and phthalocyanine, and which is derived from phthalic acid.
Organic pigments achieve significantly higher color strength and brilliant shades as opposed to inorganic pigments. But due to the very low average pigment particle size, compared to inorganic pigments, they have a lower opacity and are therefore more transparent.
The Colour Index (CI short) exists since 1925 and is the reference of all conventional colorants and dye-based chemicals and is considered a standard work in the field of pigment and dye chemistry.
Colour Index Name:
The CI Name consists of the category identifier for dye (F) or pigment (P), the general hue and a serial number for modifications. For example PB15.1, Phtaloblue, represents a specific blue pigment with reddish tone.
Colour Index Number:
Colorants are sorted by this number because of its chemical properties. Based on this number it is therefore possible to make rough estimations on the chemical characterization of dyes and pigments. The C.I. Number is used in official regulations. For example, the number for Phtaloblue is C.I. 74160
... Each of our paints is characterized by Pigment Type, Colour Index Name and Index Number.